It's the world's favourite sweet snack, and the chocolate industry is worth over $100 billion.
Discover the fantastic history of where it comes from, how it became so popular, and learn about some of the economics of chocolate production.
It's the money that a country borrows from private investors and other countries, and has been increasing dramatically in recent years.
In this episode we discuss how it works, why countries have more debt than ever, how COVID-19 has impacted this, and ask ourselves if the world will ever pay off its debts.
In August 1995 Britain's two biggest bands battled for the number one position.
Discover what happened, how the battle divided the nation, and why the story is about much more than just music.
He was the ruler of the Mongols and the most powerful man in the world.
In this episode, you'll learn about his early life, how he united the Mongol tribes, and we'll ask ourselves whether he was really as brutal as he is often made out to be.
It's the most famous cryptocurrency in the world, and went up in value by 269% in 2020.
In this episode, we take a look at what it actually is, how it works, why some people think it is the future of money and others think it is a giant bubble.
In the 1920s the boss of the Ford Motor Company, Henry Ford, attempted to build a huge rubber plantation in the Amazon jungle.
It didn't quite go to plan...
It's the iconic Italian scooter that has conquered the world.
Learn about how it started, how it got its name, and why it has become such a huge, global success story.
He was the charismatic, guerilla fighter who will forever be associated with pro-independence movements, and is an Italian national hero.
In this episode you'll learn about his fascinating life, and the unlikely story of how he managed to unify Italy.
You might think that nothing of historical importance ever happens on Christmas Day, but you'd be wrong.
Here are 9 weird and wonderful events.
The one thing they have in common? They all happened on December 25th.
Vaccination is one of the most important medical inventions in history, and vaccines save hundreds of millions of lives every year.
Discover the fantastic history of vaccines, where they came from, how they have developed, and the problems that governments have in encouraging citizens to actually take them.
He was the creator of utilitarianism, a philosophical framework for how societies should be structured, based on the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
Learn about the fascinating life of this interesting character, how this theory impacted the law, and how he was true to his beliefs even in death.
In 1666 a huge fire swept through London, destroying much of the city and making a third of the population homeless.
Learn about how it started, what happened, why it happened, and the effect it left on the country's capital.
He is the father of modern biology, and his 1869 book On the Origin of Species presented a revolutionary new idea about how species evolve.
Discover the amazing story of Charles Darwin, and the journey of how he developed this groundbreaking theory.
He was the founding father of China, and ruled the country until his death until 1976.
Learn about his early life, his rise to power, his rule of China, and the complicated legacy he left behind.
The personality industry is worth billions, and promises to help us better understand ourselves.
But how did it start? How does it actually work?
And most importantly, does it actually work?
They are a quintessential part of British culture, and once there was one for every 187 people.
Learn about the history of pubs, why they are so popular, the threats facing them, and how much beer British people really drink.
It's the biggest shopping day of the year. How did it start, what actually happens, and how much do people really spend?
Plus, learn about the history of discounting, and how companies trick you into buying things you don't need.
Discover how one small country's appetite for expansion led it to control a quarter of the world's population and a quarter of the world's land area.
Learn about the how, when, and why of the British empire, and learn about the complicated legacy it has left in Britain and abroad.
Starting in the 17th century, Britain sent hundreds of thousands of people to America and Australia for crimes as small as stealing a loaf of bread.
Learn about why this happened, how it worked, and the legacy it has left on the countries where these prisoners were sent to.
Humans will spend from a quarter to a third of our lives sleeping.
But what actually happens when we sleep? Why do we need to sleep? How does it work?
From black cats to Friday the 13th, superstitions exist in cultures all over the world.
Where do they come from? Why do so many people believe them? And is there any evidence to suggest that they are actually true?
Learn about the fascinating history of this little bean, how it was first discovered, helped create the 'penny university' and rose to its current position as the world's most popular drug.
It's the belief that the world is unstable and unpredictable, and that we should all be prepared for what happens when catastrophe strikes.
Learn about where this idea came from, what survivalists do, and why the USA is the world's survivalist capital.
Discover the amazing story of the Indian mathematical genius who went from accounting clerk at the Port of Madras to the University of Cambridge.
In 70 countries around the world we change the time twice a year, giving us longer evenings in summer.
Why did we start doing this? Why do some people love it, others hate it, and will we ever stop doing it altogether?
He was called 'probably the best orator in England', and founded The British Union of Fascists.
Learn about the fascinating life of Oswald Mosley, how he brought fascism to Britain, and why it was soundly rejected by the British people.
He has been called 'the most relentlessly curious man in history', and was the quintessential Renaissance man.
Learn all about the fantastic life of the genius after whom Leonardo English is named, from his talents as an artist to his skills as an engineer, and get inspired by his insatiable curiosity about how the world works.
It's the way that criminals take dirty money and clean it, turning it into beautiful, clean money that appears to have been earned completely legally.
Discover how this is done, how much of a problem this really is, and how this process supports the criminal underworld.
It's the number that world leaders constantly talk about, using it as proof of what a great job they are doing.
But what does it actually mean? What does it tell us, and what doesn't it tell us? And what would happen if we stopped using it altogether?
It's the one inevitability in life, but it remains one of life's biggest unknowns.
In this morbid episode we discuss what happens when we die, how different cultures celebrate death, and what the future of death might look like.
For almost 300 years the Vikings terrorised large parts of Europe, arriving in boats and killing anyone that got in their way.
But they were also traders, inventors, and storytellers, and they have had a lasting legacy on the world we live in.
Over 60% of the world's population needs some form of vision correction, and this number is only set to increase.
Discover the story of the man, and the company, who controls a large part of the way the world sees.
You've heard of zoology, but you might not have heard about its pseudoscience cousin, cryptozoology, the subculture that attempts to prove the existence of mysterious animals from folklore and popular culture.
In the 19th century Britain went to war with China over the drugs, causing the downfall of ancient China and a 'century of humiliation'.
Discover what happened, why Britain did this, and why this story is vitally important if you want to understand modern China.
The Prime Minister of the UK has a unique way of using language, which shows his privileged upbringing and elite education.
Learn about how he uses language, why he talks in this way, why this appeals to the British people, and what similarities he has with Donald Trump.
It's the 193km long canal that links the Mediterranean and the Red Seas.
The Ancient Egyptians dreamed of it, the Venetians did too, the French engineered it, the British bought it, the Egyptians nationalised it, it caused a Cold War crisis, and now it's a hugely important stretch of water for global trade.
It's time to tell the story of The Suez Canal.
The Medici family rose to power in Florence in the 1400s, and controlled the city for a large part of the Renaissance. Their legacy lives on through much of the art, culture, and architecture that we now take for granted.
In this episode we tell the story of how they rose to power and developed the idea of modern philanthropy.
He was the baddest of the bad-boy painters, and lived a remarkable life of crime, all while creating some of the most influential art of the 17th century.
From attacking waiters to murder, the story of his turbulent life takes us from Italy to Malta, making enemies at every step of the journey.
Whales are some of the most amazing animals that have ever existed.
From where they come from to how they live their lives, through to the threats that they have faced and how they bring new life in death, it's time to learn more about the amazing life these animals lead.
Is it really the most powerful secret society is the world?
Does it really control everything we do?
Or is it a conspiracy theory that has only a small basis in truth?
It's time for the true story of The Illuminati.
The history of electric cars goes back a lot further than Tesla and Elon Musk.
Indeed, the 'golden age' of electric cars was over 150 years ago.
Discover how electric cars have evolved, why some people say they aren't as green as people think they are, and we run the calculations to see what the true environmental cost of electric car ownership is.
These 17 chemical elements are vital for lots of modern technologies, from smartphones to laptops, wind turbines to electric cars.
But our dependence on them comes at a large cost, a cost that very few people are aware of.
Tito, the former president of Yugoslavia, survived 21 assassination attempts, fought in two world wars, and managed to stand up to Josef Stalin and live to tell the tale.
In this episode we tell the tale of the fascinating life of Josip Broz, 'Tito'.
It's the area of the Atlantic Ocean that some people think is incredibly dangerous for ships, and people have claimed that giant squids, large storms, and even the ancient underground city of Atlantis are responsible for countless sailors' lives.
In this episode we lift the curtain on the mystery of The Bermuda Triangle.
The President of The United States of America uses a kind of English you won't find in a textbook.
Here we take a look at how he speaks, why he speaks like he speaks, and what Donald Trump can teach you about speaking English effectively.
Deep in the Arctic Archipelago, under an icy mountain, lies a real-life Noah's Ark.
The Svalbard Global Seed Vault is where a copy of almost every seed in the world is kept, just as a backup. Enjoy this fascinating story of global cooperation, and hear about one of the most amazing places on Earth.
It's one of the biggest financial frauds in history, and involves bankers, politicians, Hollywood celebrities, and The Wolf of Wall Street.
It's time to find out what happened to the missing Malaysian billions.
From what you can and can't do to a swan, to what happens if you have a drink and ride a horse, the UK is full of very strange laws.
In today's episode we discuss some of the strangest, and ask ourselves whether the law is any stranger in the UK than anywhere else in the world.
The pirates of the 21st century don't have parrots and swords, but night-vision goggles and AK47s.
Discover why pirates have re-emerged, how they work, and what the effect of piracy is on the areas in which they operate.
Anyone can send a letter, anywhere in the world, and it will be hand-delivered to any country in the world, for less than the price of a cup of coffee.
How did we arrive at this system, and how does it all work?
It's one of the world's most important financial institutions, but also one of the most controversial.
Discover what the World Bank actually is, how it works, what happens when it gets things right, and what happens when things go badly wrong.
It's one of Italy's oldest and largest criminal organisations, and its story is inextricably linked to the city of Naples.
In today's episode we tell the story of the Camorra: how it got to where it is today, how one of the biggest bosses was found hiding in an old lady's house, and why the new generation may not be as smart as the last.
This far-right conspiracy theory has gone from niche internet forums to President Trump's Twitter account.
Discover the story behind QAnon - where does it come from, what do they believe, and is it really the most dangerous conspiracy theory in America?
Discover the story of the man who escaped the Nazis, built up a publishing empire in Great Britain, then died mysteriously off the coast of the Canary Islands after stealing £500 million from his employees’ pension pots.
In 1971, Richard Nixon declared The War On Drugs. Almost 50 years later, in a war that has cost the US over a trillion dollars, we take a look at the effect that this war has had on society.
Why was it declared, what actually happened, and who are the real winners?
In the 19th century, young British and Russian men played a dangerous diplomatic game in central Asia.
Discover the unknown story of how these two empires fought for power in Afghanistan, and the men behind the story.
In 1948 the United Nations signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which set out the 30 'inalienable' rights that all humans on Earth should get at birth.
But where did this come from? How effectively does it actually work?
And what comes next for human rights?
It's the world's most famous man-made language, and is spoken by up to 2 million people.
In this episode we take a look at the fantastic history of Esperanto, how it works, why people love it, why people fear it, and what has made it attract so many devoted followers.
There are 7,000 languages spoken across the world.
Yet 80% of the population speaks just 1.1% of the languages, and 43% of the languages are endangered.
What happens when they die out?
You probably know about the invention of the light bulb, the telephone, and the aeroplane.
But do you know anything about the weird history of brandy, the microwave oven, viagra, velcro, or the stethoscope?
It's time to tell the unorthodox stories of how these five inventions were discovered.
Discover the amazing story of how a young woman from France befriended the royal family, escaped the guillotine, made death masks of revolutionaries, and then created the world's most successful waxworks museum.
The story of Madame Tussauds has a lot more to it than meets the eye.
It's now the most popular soft drink in the United States.
Yet 50 years ago barely anyone drunk it.
Today, we tell the story of how the world became addicted to bottled water.
Food delivery apps have taken over cities across the world, promising delicious food at the tap of a button.
But is it really that simple?
In this episode we discuss what the rise of food delivery apps means for us, for restaurants, and for the people who do the deliveries.
In 1983, a 16 year old girl who lived in the Vatican City didn't return home after a music lesson.
This true story involves the pope, gangsters, Turkish ultra-nationalists, and The Vatican Bank.
It's time to tell the story of Emanuela Orlandi.
When a country finds gold, oil or diamonds, you might think this would be a good thing.
But in many cases, it is a curse for that country, and it would have been better off leaving its natural resources in the ground.
In 2015, the boss of an American company decided to pay every employee a minimum wage of $70,000, and cut his salary from $1.1M to $70,000.
Some people said he was mad, and it would never work. Others thought it was a fantastic decision.
In today's episode we tell the story of this company, and find out how it is doing 5 years later.
People in Britain have a unique sense of humour.
For lots of foreigners it's difficult to understand and confusing. But British people are fiercely proud of their sense of humour, and the UK has produced some of the world's best comedies.
In this episode we take a look at what makes Brits laugh, and tell a few jokes along the way.
In 1851, in London's Hyde Park, an immense glass structure towered above the trees.
Inside was an exhibition of the latest technologies, available for all to see.
It was so impressive that 1/3 of the British population came to see it, and Queen Victoria even visited 41 times.
In this episode, we tell the story of The Great Exhibition, and the mark it left on Britain, and the world.
It has revolutionised our lives, made cars lighter, food fresher, and water safer.
But at what cost?
In this episode we take a look at the history of plastic, and ask ourselves what comes next.
Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister of the UK during the 1980s, and left a lasting impact on the country.
She was "perhaps the most admired, hated, fascinating, boring, radical and conservative leader in the Western world."
In this episode we talk about what she did, what it meant, and why she divided opinion so much.
It's one of the most isolated countries in the world, ruled by an authoritarian leader with a passion for horses and Guinness World Records.
It's time to find out about the weird and wonderful country of Turkmenistan.
From evil spirits to the Roman army, we look at the influences that have shaped the English language.
We'll discuss some of the weirdest ones, bust some myths about the origins of words, and talk about the mystery of where words come from.
It's one of the most famous department stores in the world, catering to the world's rich and famous.
But it hasn't always been this way.
In this episode we take a look at the story of Harrods, and discover the fascinating and unusual history of this iconic London location.
It's the internet's 'dark' side, where people go to do things that they don't want other people to know about.
In this episode we take a look into the hidden part of the internet, and discuss how it works, what you can do there, and whether it is really as bad as the media make it out to be.
It's a collection of the biggest, fastest, and weirdest things in the world.
But how much do you really know about The Guinness World Records?
Today we look at the story behind the book, and discover how an argument about a bird turned into one of the best selling books in the world.
It is Britain's best known family, and its head has one of the most recognisable faces in the world.
But how much do we really know about Britain's Royal Family?
In this episode we ask ourselves what Brits really think of The Queen and The Royal Family, and what the future might hold for them.
A quick announcement of some exciting developments at Leonardo English.
New memberships, request an episode, and exclusive Q&A sessions for members.
You recognise the name. You recognise the label.
You've seen it on bananas, chocolate, coffee, and all over thousands of everyday products.
But how much do you really know about Fairtrade?
In today's episode we take a look at how it really works, who benefits, and why some companies are starting up alternatives to Fairtrade.
The Spanish Flu pandemic of 1918 infected 1/3 of the world's population, and it's estimated that it killed up to 100 million people.
In today's episode we take a look at what really happened, how it spread so quickly, and what countries did to contain it.
It's one of the most powerful television channels in the United States, the current US president’s preferred news channel, and referred to by some as 'state TV'.
In today's episode we take a look at Fox News: who watches it, how it really makes money, and what event could cause its downfall.
From sharia law to public executions, The Taliban ruled Afghanistan with a iron fist.
In this episode we look at the origins of this group, what life was like under its rule, how it has managed to survive so long, and what the future might have in store.
In the early hours of November 5th, 1605, a man was found in a cellar under The Houses of Parliament. He was moments away from blowing everything up, killing the King, and changing the course of British history forever.
Today we tell the story of Guy Fawkes, and how we went from religious terrorist to anti-establishment icon.
The Enigma machine, used by the Nazis in World War II, had 158,962,555,217,826,360,000 possible combinations, and was thought by many to be impossible to crack.
In this episode we tell the story of the man who cracked the code, and his tragic end.
In Holland in the 1600s the price of tulips rose so much that a single bulb reportedly cost more than a townhouse on Amsterdam's grand canal.
In this episode we look at the real story behind one of the greatest bubbles in history.
The passport sales industry is booming, and is worth around $1 billion a year.
In today's episode we take a look at how it all works, how much it all costs, and the people and countries that make it all possible.
In 1963 a criminal gang managed to stop a Royal Mail train, steal £2 million pounds in cash (£55 million in today's money), and escape.
It took them just 15 minutes.
Today we tell the story of this infamous robbery, and the hunt to find the men who did it.
It's the day of the year where people, newspapers, TV shows, and companies play practical jokes on the public.
Today we take a look at some of the best April Fool's Day jokes in history, and talk about what happens when they go wrong.
Every self-respecting English learner wants to improve their English pronunciation.
But how to actually do it isn't so clear.
Today we talk about the truth about pronunciation in English.
In 1755, Samuel Johnson published an English dictionary that has gone down in history.
Not only was it the first of its kind, it was full of funny jokes.
Today we tell the story of this fantastic dictionary.
George Orwell, author of books like Animal Farm and 1984, is considered to be one of the finest writers in English.
Today, we discuss his six rules on how to write effectively.
300 years ago, London experienced a gin craze of epic scale, with the average Londoner drinking 10 times the amount of gin that the world's biggest gin drinking country does now.
Today, it's time to learn about how gin almost destroyed London.
"We are here not because we are law-breakers, we are here in our efforts to become law-makers"
Hunger strikes, chaining yourself to railings, and being killed by the King's horse.
It's time to tell the story of The Suffragette movement in Britain, and how women got the right to vote.
After water and air, it's the most used natural resource in the world. But are we really running out of it?
If so, why? And what happens if we do?
Vocabulary is the building blocks with which language is formed. But there are a lot of myths around the best way to learn vocabulary.
Today we'll bust some of the most common myths, talk about some techniques you can use to build your vocabulary, and about the joy of pointless words.
It's the most populous bird in the world, outnumbering humans 3:1.
Today we are asking ourselves how an obscure bird from South East Asia went from jungle floor to being eaten at a rate of two every millisecond.
What would happen if the government just gave everyone money?
That's the idea of Universal Basic Income, and it's an idea that has supporters from all across the political spectrum.
Today we're going to take a look at how it works, why people love it, why people hate it, and what happens when you just give people money without asking for anything in return.
His 36-year rule saw England break ties with the Catholic church and two of his six wives lose their heads.
Today we're taking a look at Henry VIII of England, and his unfortunate wives.
Today it's time to take a look at how World War One is remembered through poetry.
We look at the words of the young men, and how public feeling towards the war changed over its four-year course.
And of course, we look at some of the most iconic and moving poems written during the period.
It's the most visited website in the world, with 80,000 searches per second.
But have you ever actually wondered how it really works?
In 1888 a serial killer terrorised the streets of London's East End, brutally murdering women.
Over 2,000 people were questioned, but the killer's true identity has never been revealed.
Today it's time to tell the story of Jack The Ripper.